Option 2: Multiple Websites
In this model, the local chapters are independent and each has its own website and database. Members join at the local chapter level and each chapter is responsible for defining member types and dues. Members login to that website to update their profile, participate in discussion forums, register for events, make payments, etc.
But these individual chapters may also be part of a larger organization, serving in a "parent" role, aggregating members, events, discussions, etc. This parent organization will have its own website and members of the individual chapters can also log into this website using the same credentials to register for events as members, be on committees, participate in forums, etc. The top-level organization has a virtual database. Administrators at this level can view (but not edit) member contact information, define committees, discussion forums, share events, share the member directory, etc. The top level can also send blast emailings and text messages to all or selected members in the hierarchy.
Every chapter can use the same template to reinforce a common brand and identity across the whole organization. This template can have a panel that's controlled by the parent organization but visible on the websites of each local club.
With Option 2, individual chapters can configure their events to appear on the top level calendar, and the top level can display their events on the calendars for all lower level clubs. We can even set up funds sharing so that a portion of dues paid at the chapter level is remitted to the top level organization.